There are many standards and specifications for 10 Gigabit Ethernet. In terms of standards, there are IEEE 802.3ae in 2002, IEEE 802.3ak in 2004, IEEE 802.3an, IEEE 802.3aq in 2006, and IEEE 802.3ap in 2007. In total, there are more than 10 (a relatively large family, much more than the 9 of Gigabit Ethernet). Among the more than 10 specifications, they can be divided into three categories: one is the local area network 10 Gigabit Ethernet specification based on optical fiber, the second is the local area network 10 Gigabit Ethernet specification based on twisted pair (or copper wire), and the third is based on optical fiber WAN 10 Gigabit Ethernet specification. The following are introduced separately.
1. Fiber-based LAN 10 Gigabit Ethernet specification
For now, the 10GBase-SR, 10GBase-LR, 10GBase-LRM, 10GBase-ER, 10GBase-ZR, and 10GBase-LX4 specifications for 10GBase-SR, 10GBase-LR, and 10GBase-LX4 are used for LANs.
"SR" in 10GBase-SR stands for "short range". The specification supports short-wave (wavelength of 850nm) multimode fiber (MMF) with 64B / 66B encoding method, and the effective transmission distance is 2 ï½ž 300m To support 300m transmission, an optimized 50Î¼m wire diameter OM3 (OpTImized MulTImode 3, optimized multimode 3) fiber (without optimized wire diameter 50Î¼m fiber is called OM2 fiber, and a wire diameter 62.5Î¼m fiber is called OM1 optical fiber).
10GBase-SR has the advantages of the lowest cost, the lowest power consumption and the smallest fiber module.
"LR" in 10GBase-LR stands for "Long Range". The specification supports 64B / 66B long wave (1310nm) single-mode fiber (SMF) with an effective transmission distance of 2m to 10km. It can reach up to 25km.
The 10GBase-LR fiber optic module is cheaper than the 10GBase-LX4 fiber optic module described below.
"LRM" in 10GBase-LRM stands for "Long Reach MulTImode", and the corresponding standard is IEEE 802.3aq released in 2006. The effective transmission distance of the FDDI network and the 100Base-FX network of the FDDI 62.5? M multimode fiber installed before 1990 is 220m, and it can reach 260m in the OM3 fiber. In terms of connection length, it is not as good as the previous 10GBase-LX4 specification , But its optical fiber module has lower cost and lower power consumption than the 10GBase-LX4 standard optical fiber module.
"ER" in 10GBase-ER stands for "Extended Range". The specification supports ultra-long wave (1550nm) single-mode fiber (SMF) with an effective transmission distance of 2m to 40km.
Several manufacturers have proposed a module interface with a transmission distance of up to 80km, which is the 10GBase-ZR specification. It also uses ultra-long wave (1550nm) single-mode fiber (SMF). However, the 80km physical layer is not within the EEE 802.3ae standard. It is the manufacturer's own description in the OC-192 / STM-64 SDH / SONET specification, and will not be accepted by the IEEE 802.3 working group.
10GBase-LX4 adopts wavelength division multiplexing technology, and realizes 10Gb / s transmission by using 4 channels with a unified wavelength of 1300 nm and working at 3.125Gb / s separate light sources. The effective transmission distance of the specification in multimode fiber is 2 to 300m, and the effective transmission distance in single mode fiber can be up to 10km. It is mainly suitable for environments that need to support both multimode and single-mode fiber in one fiber module. Because the 10GBase-LX4 specification uses 4 laser sources, the cost, fiber diameter, and power supply cost are inadequate compared to the 10GBase-LRM specification described earlier.
2. LAN 10 Gigabit Ethernet specification based on twisted pair (or copper wire)
In the several 10 Gigabit Ethernet specifications released in 2002, copper wire is not supported as a cheap transmission medium, but in fact, the application of copper wire such as twisted pair in LAN is the most common, not only low cost And it is easy to maintain, so in recent years, several 10G Ethernet specifications based on twisted pair (category 6 and above) have been introduced, including 10GBase-CX4, 10GBase-KX4, 10GBase-KR, and 10GBase-T. The following is a brief introduction.
10GBase-CX4 corresponds to the IEEE 802.3ak 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard released in 2004. 10GBase-CX4 uses the XAUI (10 Gigabit Additional Unit Interface) defined in 802.3ae and the 4X connector used in InfiniBand. The transmission medium is called "CX4 copper cable" (in fact, it is a shielded twisted pair). Its effective transmission distance is only 15m.
The 10GBase-CX4 specification does not use a single copper wire link to transmit 10 Gigabit data, but uses 4 transmitters and 4 receivers to transmit 10 Gigabit data, and runs on a coaxial cable in a differential manner. Each device uses 8B / 10B encoding, transmitting 2.5Gb / s data at a baud rate of 3.125GHz per channel. This requires 4 differential cable pairs in each direction for a total of 8 dual coaxial channels per cable group. In addition, unlike Cat 5 and Cat 5 twisted pairs that can be terminated on site, CX4 cables need to be terminated at the factory, so the customer must specify the cable length. The longer the cable, the larger the diameter.
The main advantages of 10GBase-CX4 are low power consumption, low cost, and low response delay, but the interface module is larger than SPF +.
10GBase-KX4 and 10GBase-KR
10GBase-KX4 and 10GBase-KR correspond to the IEEE 802.3ap standard released in 2007. They are mainly used for backplane applications, such as cluster line cards for blade servers, routers and switches, so they are also called "backplane Ethernet".
10 Gigabit backplanes currently exist in parallel and serial versions. The parallel version (10GBase-KX4 specification) is a universal design of the backplane. It splits the 10 Gigabit signal into 4 channels (similar to XAUI), and the bandwidth of each channel is 3.125Gb / s. In the serial version (10GBase-KR specification), only one channel is defined, and the 64 / 66B encoding method is used to achieve 10Gb / s high-speed transmission. In the 10GBase-KR specification, in order to prevent signal attenuation at higher frequency levels, the performance of the backplane itself needs to be higher, and the quality of the signal can be maintained in a larger frequency range. The IEEE 802.3ap standard uses a parallel design, including a 1m long copper wiring printed circuit board with two connectors. 10GBase-KX4 uses the same physical layer encoding as the 10GBase-CX4 specification, and 10GBase-KR uses the same physical layer encoding as the 10GBase-LR / ER / SR three specifications. At present, for backplanes that have overall bandwidth requirements or need to solve the problem of high wiring density, SerDes chips provided by many vendors all use 10GBase-KR solutions.
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